This study examined the effects of stimulation targeting dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on behavioral and neural oscillatory markers of proactive cognitive control in healthy adults. We hypothesized that active stimulation targeting the DLPFC would enhance proactive control compared to sham, leading to changes in the pattern of error rates and gamma-band power on the Dot Pattern Expectancy (DPX) task. We recorded EEG while participants completed the DPX, after receiving either 20 minutes of active DLPFC stimulation at 2 mA or sham stimulation in a counterbalanced within-participants design. The results showed significant tDCS-induced changes in the pattern of error rates on the DPX task indicative of enhanced proactive control, as well as predicted increases in gamma power associated with the engagement of proactive control. These results provide support for the role of DLPFC-mediated gamma activity in proactive cognitive control, and further, indicate that proactive control can be enhanced with non-invasive neurostimulation.
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